i4o HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION concerned with the personal interests of their members. This is quite clearly brought out by the later statutes pf the German group, which is believed to have been the earliest society of the kind. " In these statutes, the object of the gild is declared to be the cultivation of * fraternal charity, mutual association and amity, the consolation of the sick and support of the needy, the conduct of funerals and the extirpation of rancours and quarrels, the attendance and escort of our Doctorandi to and from the place of examination, and the spiritual advantage of members/ "* Even at this stage, when the societies of masters and students were still feeble and undeveloped, the scholars in cities like Paris and Bologna occupied a favoured position. In Paris they were recognized as a section of the clergy and allowed such privileges as the right of trial by the ecclesiastical courts. In the Italian cities they formed a class by themselves on whom the cities for their own sakes were willing to confer special advantages. Over and above that, they enjoyed the favour of the superior secular powers almost from the beginning. In 1158, before there was any definite university organization at all, the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa issued a decree, sometimes wrongly regarded as marking the institution of the university of Bologna, granting special legal standing to all students in the Lombard kingdom: in the case of legal proceedings, the students were allowed the option of bringing their case before their own masters, or before the bishop of the city in which they were studying. The students of Paris received a similar charter of privilege from Philip Augus- tus after a quarrel between citizens and students in 1200 in which several students were killed. In these royal favours there was no recognition of the studia at Bologna and Paris as such: the privileges conferred had reference only to the masters and students as individuals. And the reason is plainly that the studia were still in a loosely organized condition. But with the Thirteenth Century caine great changes. The several " universities " of scholars developed into corporate bodies with well-defined administrative functions, and the par- ticular studium of which they formed constituent parts became the entity known at a later time as "universitas studii" or even " universitas " without qualification. * Rashdall, i, 161.